Health

Mantoux test for children: terms of verification, evaluation of the result, indications and contraindications, analogues, what can and cannot be done? What is the minimum and maximum age for a Mantoux test?

In this article we will consider whether it is possible to wet Mantoux and what could be the consequences if it gets wet. And also we learn what the Mantoux test is and for what purpose it is carried out.

Everyone remembers from childhood how to inject Mantoux. This is one of the mandatory vaccinations, due to which the presence of tuberculosis pathogens in the child's body is determined. But here you also need to be able to handle it. Therefore, we will consider what can and should not be done after the injection of the Mantoux test, and also touch on the issue of contact of the sample with water.

What is a Mantoux test or reaction, why and when is it done to children?

One of the most famous and regular vaccinations is the Mantoux test. It can be said that this is an almost painless procedure. But the sight of the syringe and white coat introduces more panic than the manipulation itself.

But in there is a very important rule in medicinethe sooner the disease is detected (that is, in the initial stages), the better the human body is subject to treatment and recovery.

  • And this is due to the fact that the children's body has a unique ability to quickly resume after an illness. But, unfortunately, it’s easier for a child to get sick than an adult.
  • Mantoux vaccination itself consists in the following - a microbacterium of tuberculosis infection is injected subcutaneously with a special tuberculin syringe. In this way, the presence of the infection in the child’s body is determined.
  • Further, after a certain period of time, the skin reaction of the babies is examined to test the reaction. Based on the results of the examination and measurement, a result is established that is individually recorded in the medical record of each small patient.
Mantoux test is the most important tuberculosis test
  • The minimum for a Mantoux test is considered to be one year old. Starting from this period, it is already possible to detect tuberculosis microbacteria in children. Until then, an unreliable result is allowed.
  • Regarding the maximum age of the Mantoux test, the period of 14-15 years is considered the general standard.
  • There are end-period exceptions. This applies to children who are specifically registered. That is, in cases where too high risks of tuberculosis are recorded. These include:
    • genetic predisposition to the disease;
    • diabetes mellitus disease. In this case, vaccination takes place twice a year. And this is only for the period of study at school;
    • frequent communication with peers or comrades who are sick with tuberculosis;
    • long-term treatment with drugs that suppress the immune system;
    • territorial residence where high outbreaks of the disease are detected;
      • or immunodeficiency diseases are detected;
    • as well as other cases that are justified by doctors for specific children.
  • Mantoux test is required for all children under the age of 18 years.
  • Upon reaching 18 years, an adult is diagnosed with the use of fluorography or X-ray.
Typical Mantoux Dates

Indications and contraindications for the Mantoux test

Mantoux test (reaction) is considered one of the most effective ways to control the condition of tuberculosis disease. But it was and is an ordinary medicine, which, in turn, has a number of indications and contraindications for use.

  • We bring to your attention the main standard testimony for vaccination:
    • tuberculosis prevention;
    • identification of patients with tuberculosis;
    • detection of hypersensitivity;
    • determination of infection;
    • confirmation of an existing diagnosis;
    • verification of individual tolerance of the components of the drug.
  • In general, the Mantoux test is possible for all categories of the population of the corresponding age. However there are a large number contraindicationsthat can not be ignored. These include:
    • epilepsy;
    • acute chronic diseases;
    • bronchial asthma;
    • quarantine period in a certain territory, or in an educational institution;
    • allergic conditions;
    • various kinds of skin diseases;
    • rheumatism;

Note that the list is not exhaustive.

  • Also, when conducting a Mantoux test, it is not necessary to disregard such inalienable related factors as:
    • the permission of the parents or their replacement for manipulation;
    • individual skin sensitivity;
    • any illness of the child;
    • unfavorable radiation background;
    • harmful emissions;
    • generally all environmental factors.

Important: Although it is not possible to summarize all contraindications, the Mantoux test is necessary and is one of the main ways to detect tuberculosis.

Mantoux test: terms of verification, norm, size and types of possible reactions of the child's body

There is a certain time period for checking the reaction of the vaccine, which lasts 3 days (72 hours). This period is considered the best option for tracking the interaction of the drug and the state of the body.

  • The injection trace has a suitable final size in the specified period. By this time, a reaction is forming, and after the set time, a drop in the state and effect of the vaccine begins.
  • However, it must be remembered that after 2 days (48 hours) there is no reaction (that is, there are no traces of the sample), then the check showed a negative result. This means that the disease is absent.
  • In general, the injection site becomes denser with redness. And it is the size of this redness that indicates the results of the check:
    • negative result gives a lack of reaction or swelling up to 1 mm - this means - the norm, everything is fine, the child has no risk for tuberculosis.
    • seals more than 4 mm - this doubtful resultthat requires re-verification. Because the child is at risk;
    • with seal from 5 to 16 mm reaction is recognized positiveaccordingly, there is a high risk of disease;
    • the reaction is more 17 mm directly points to the presence of allergies child on the administered drug or its individual components.
  • Since science and practice are not accurate enough, there are uncertainties. Do not forget for cases when false results are established. And this applies to all of the above types of reactions.

False results

  • Unreliable results may occur if there are such factors:
    • an allergy to the drug or its components;
    • under the age of one year. This is explained by the fact that the baby’s body is not yet able to adequately respond to medications;
    • damage, including mechanical damage (rubbing, combing, etc.).
  • Quite interesting is the fact that even at the present time it was not possible to study the existing reactions and factors affecting the Mantoux reaction on the child's body. However, the main purpose of this vaccine is known - the detection of tuberculosis in the early stages.
  • Each organism of a child is characterized by individuality. And therefore, complications after the Mantoux test are possible.
  • Difficulties are manifested in the general weakness of the child and a violation of body temperature. Such body reactions are short-term. But the doctor must be notified of all deviations from the norm.
So check the body's response to the Mantoux test

What will happen if the Mantoux injection site is wetted with water?

One of the main and main rules for caring for a Mantoux test is the prohibition of wetting the injection site for 3 days. This should be remembered by both children and parents. But often there are many questions about the consequences of getting water on the vaccine.

  • We recommend that you do not worry if water has entered the injection site. No complications will occur in the child’s body. It is only possible to change the size of the injection itself, the magnitude of which determines the presence or absence of the disease.
  • There are times when a child wet an injection, but did not tell his parents anything. It is very good if there is no response to the vaccine at all. But, when the skin turned very red, the main thing - no need to panic. Positive or negative results can only be determined by a doctor.
  • If you were unable to trace, and water got into the injection site, it is enough to dry it with a towel. Also, do not forget to inform your doctor about this case.
  • When wetting the sample, one should not forget that some infection may be contained in the water. Basically, water does not affect the result. But, in order not to injure the child with a second injection, we recommend that you do not let him intentionally wet the sample.

How to care for the Mantoux injection site, what can not be done?

Absolutely forbidden

  • The most important rule is not to comb the injection site! Otherwise, infection may be introduced, which will be fraught not only with a false result.
  • Also, do not wrap the injection site with polyethylene or seal with a band-aid so that moisture does not get. This will only create a greenhouse effect, which will entail more serious consequences.
  • Do not try to warm Mantoux.
  • Also give up swimming in ponds. Dirty water will cause infection.
  • And also throw out of your head to treat the injection site with some antiseptics.

Should a child do a Mantoux test every year: pros and cons

Having analyzed the main characteristics of the Mantoux test, we suggest that you familiarize yourself with the attitude of doctors to this type of injection. Since the doctors themselves have a dual approach to vaccination. The following two items are available:

  1. Mantoux is harmful. Proponents of this position are confident that the young body does not need any load. Including immunity. A vaccine is dangerous because it tests the body for immunity;
  2. Another position is completely opposite. Supporters are sure that vaccination does not pose a threat to the child. On the contrary, the introduction of a tiny dose of the tuberculin trace element stabilizes the immune system. And vaccination allows doctors to identify the disease at the initial stage of progression.
  • Previously, vaccination was mandatory at a certain period in the development of the child. But now, given the large number of negative consequences that are triggered by the injection, it is imperative that parents or their substitute persons be allowed to manipulate.
  • Also interesting is the position of immunologists who generally consider the Mantoux test not a vaccine. They are sure that this is only a test for the detection of tuberculosis due to the introduction of tuberculin.
  • Each parent must make sure the importance of the injection for his child. We recommend taking into account all the pros and cons. Indeed, there are facts of the negative impact of the vaccine, more precisely, adverse reactions in children.
  • But it is not for nothing that medicine uses the rule: the disease is better to prevent than to treat. Recall the history of the disease, to identify which they conduct a Mantoux test.

  • Tuberculosis disease itself (also called the "Koch wand") was discovered by Robert Koch in 1882. It was this scientist who developed tuberculin to diagnose the underlying disease. However, the diagnosis of tuberculosis appeared a little more than a hundred years ago, in 1908. And it was proposed by the French physician Charles Mantoux after a series of studies.
  • An interesting fact is that in the late 60s - early 70s, the cutaneous method was used to detect tuberculosis disease. It is called the Pirke test.
  • A tuberculin solution was dripped onto the child’s hand. Then small incisions were made on the arm. This test could not be wet at all - the result could be wrong. As you can see, the mechanism has changed, but the thought of the lack of water has remained.
  • The well-known, also the method of evaluating the Mantoux test for the American method. A solution of tuberculin of a lower consistency is injected subcutaneously behind it. However, this method is not relevant enough, because in the USA the disease is less common.

What are the analogues of the Mantoux test?

  • One cannot help but mention the alternatives to the Mantoux reaction:
    • Diaskintest;
    • Suslov's test;
    • Pirke test;
    • serological research methods.
  • Diaskintest It is carried out according to a similar scheme, like the Mantoux test. Synthetic proteins are used to determine the disease. Thanks to them, the immune responses are monitored, which determine the presence of the disease in the body. It is worth noting that the test belongs to highly sensitive methods.
  • But Suslov's test makes it possible to analyze a drop of blood. Blood is applied to a glass slide, tuberculin and complexones are added to it. The result is determined by the nature of the pattern, which is derived from substances on a glass slide. The sensitivity of this test is small, and studies are carried out individually.
  • Test Pirke consists in carrying out manipulations on the forearm of the child. The skin is cleaned, tuberculin is applied and an incision is made with a special tool. Analysis determined after 48 hours. As already mentioned, in this method there are a lot of factors that affect the result.
  • Serological methods studies are used to determine the level of immunoglobulins, hormones, etc. The disadvantage of these methods is that a reliable result can be determined in areas with a low prevalence of tuberculosis, as well as only in extrapulmonary form.

Important: It is worth paying attention that scientists have discovered one reliable analogue of the Mantoux test, which is called Diaskintest. Manipulations are similar in procedure. But using this method, you can only clarify the diagnosis when the Mantoux test shows a dubious result. Other types of analogues have low results.

Diaskintest - the only exact analogue of the Mantoux test
  • The reaction of the child's body to the drug that is administered during the test can indeed be unpredictable. But this is not only from the injection, but also from the possibility of the organism itself.
  • The position is widespread in our society that the Mantoux test has only a negative result. Repeatedly in the media, terrible cases of a child’s reaction to an injection were reported. But still, we advise you to weigh all the factors before refusing vaccination.

It is always necessary to consciously relate to the health of your child. A vaccine is not a direct cure for tuberculosis disease. But, during the Mantoux reaction, the child’s body still gets the opportunity to prevent the development of the disease. Remember - the choice is yours!

Watch the video: Toddler Gets a TB Test (February 2020).

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